I believe that Herman Kahn (of the RAND Corporation) may be interesting to look at for his contributions to MAD using game theory.
There is a brief, thorough discussion of von Neumann in the biography of John Nash.
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Daniel Kuehn is a doctoral candidate in economics at American University. He has a master's degree in public policy from George Washington University.
Evan, his brother, occasionally blogs on F&OST, but can usually be found here.